Extreme universe laboratory

Short name: EXUL

Phone: +7 495 939 10 85

Site: http://www.exul.ru


Extreme Universe Laboratory

Extreme Universe Laboratory (ExUL) was organixed in autumn 2011 within the frames of the Russian Gorernment Program of engaging of leading scientists to the Russian Institutes. Scientific leader of the Laboratory is Professor of the University of California George F. Smoot, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

The Laboratory is a research and education unit. Its scientists and MSU students develop scientific equipment for the satellites in order to observe gamma ray bursts and their afterglow in deep space. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes, although a typical burst lasts 20–40 seconds. During this time period at the the final stage of stars evolution the stars release up to 1053 erg. Observations and analysis of GRBs and their afterglow provide us information about the very initial objects of the Universe, formed during the epoch of the re-ionisation of the Universe - epochs of the first stars, proto-galaxies and black holes birth. By means of the studies of these distant objects astrophysicists and cosmologists will produce an experimental basis for verification of the theories of the Universe birth and evolution.

The scientists of the Laboratory are off to get unsolved problems of the extreme Universe astrophysics answered, including the following:
- search for the most distant objects in the Universe - gamma-ray bursts;
- observation and measuring of the Early Universe parameters and studies of the First stars properties by means of GRBs.

The scientists of the Laboratory are also off to solve fundamental problems by means of GRBs and their afterglow, namely:
- verification of the extremes of relativity by means of GRBs;
- studies of the first 60 seconds of the gamma-ray burst evolution in different ranges of electromagnetic radiation;
- understanding of the short-type GRBs nature;
- measuring of GRBs polarization and thereby recognizing of GRBs irradiation mechnaism.

In order to solve these problems the scientists of the Laboratory develop an experiment using gamma-ray bursts detectors BDRG combined with wide aperture optic camera (ShOK), and UFFO device - a 20-cm telescope operated within UV and optical ranges of wavelengths (200-650 nm) combined with X-ray camera operated within the range of 5-200 keV.

Developed complex of equipment including BDRG (SINP MSU), ShOK (P.K. Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of MSU) and UFFO will be mounted onboard "Lomonosov" satellite. UFFO device is developed by a collaboration of the scientists from different countries, including Korea, Denmark, Spain, Norway and USA. The scientists of the Laboratory also actively participate in this project.